TNM staging system

TNM classification of malignant tumors is cancer staging system that describes the extent of cancer in the patient's body.
T describes the size of the tumor and whether it has invaded adjacent tissue or still in the stage of initially structured.
N describes regional lymph nodes involved.
M describes distant metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part to another part of the body.
We have devised a TNM staging system for all solid tumors that Denoix Pierre between 1943 and 1952, using the size and extension of primary tumor involvement and the presence of lymphatic metastases for the classification of cancer development.

TNM was developed and maintained by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) to achieve consensus on a single standard is universally acknowledged to classify the prevalence of cancer in the body. This classification is also used by the American Joint Committee for Cancer (AJCC) and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). In 1987 were consolidated and UICC staging systems in the AJCC staging system and a single. And is combined with a malignant tumor in a process called stage grouping to set the stage described by numbers from 1 to 4. The existence of slight differences between the start of AJCC TNM staging system and the Butchart System.

Stage 1: tumor involves the left or right side. It can also be spread in the whole lung or pericardial membrane and on the same side.

Phase 2: The tumor has spread from the pleura on one side in the vicinity of the reed near or hilar lymph nodes next to the lung on the same side. It can also be spread in the lung or pericardial membrane and on the same side.

Stage 3: tumor spread here in the muscles of the chest wall, heart, esophagus, ribs or other organs in the chest on the same side as the primary tumor with or without spread to subcarinal lymph nodes or equitable in the same side of the primary tumor. Located Subcarinal contract at the point where the trachea branches into right and left lungs. Lymph nodes located in the equitable space behind the breastbone in front of the heart. Also included with mesothelioma the same amount of local spread, which also spread to subcarinal lymph nodes or fair on the same side.

Stage 4: tumor has spread to lymph nodes in the chest on the opposite side of the primary tumor or directly extends to the pleura or lung on the other side or extend directly into the peritoneum or directly extends into organs in the abdominal cavity or neck. Not include any mesothelioma with evidence of distant metastases spread to other organs through the blood or spread out to the members of the chest or abdomen.


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